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When they die, they stop exchanging carbon with the biosphere and their carbon 14 content then starts to decrease at a rate determined by the law of radioactive decay.

Radiocarbon dating is essentially a method designed to measure residual radioactivity.

Radiocarbon Dating Groundwater The application of radiocarbon dating to groundwater analysis can offer a technique to predict the over-pumping of the aquifer before it becomes contaminated or overexploited.

Tracer-Free AMS Dating Lab Beta Analytic does not accept pharmaceutical samples with "tracer Carbon-14" or any other material containing artificial Carbon-14 to eliminate the risk of cross-contamination.

Over the years, carbon 14 dating has also found applications in geology, hydrology, geophysics, atmospheric science, oceanography, paleoclimatology and even biomedicine.

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A vial with a sample is passed between two photomultipliers, and only when both devices register the flash of light that a count is made.

The method does not count beta particles but the number of carbon atoms present in the sample and the proportion of the isotopes. Samples that have been radiocarbon dated since the inception of the method include charcoal, wood, twigs, seeds, bones, shells, leather, peat, lake mud, soil, hair, pottery, pollen, wall paintings, corals, blood residues, fabrics, paper or parchment, resins, and water, among others.

Physical and chemical pretreatments are done on these materials to remove possible contaminants before they are analyzed for their radiocarbon content.

Over the years, other secondary radiocarbon standards have been made.

Radiocarbon activity of materials in the background is also determined to remove its contribution from results obtained during a sample analysis.

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  1. Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry This Web site, managed by the Center for Sami Studies at the University of Tromso, in Norway, outlines a sustainable development project focused on family-based reindeer herding and provides links to Sami parliaments and other organizations.